Event Report

Base data

Event code GE-VAC/03223/PHL
Main category Geological Event
Sub category volcano activity
Event date (UTC) Thu, 18 Feb 2021 01:43:01 +0000
Last update (UTC) Tue, 04 May 2021 07:45:25 +0000

Geolocation

Continent Pacific Ocean - West
Country Philippines
Administration area Province of Batangas
Settlement
Exact location Mt. Taal Volcano
Open Location Code: 7Q622X6W+7W
Size of affected area County-level
Additional events None or not detected.

Common Alerting Protocol Information

Urgency Past
Certainty Observed
Severity Extreme
Category Geo

Event details

State volcanologists on Wednesday warned of the increasing likelihood that Taal Volcano will erupt again, just a little over a year after the volcano's explosion displaced hundreds of thousands. Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Phivolcs) Director Renato Solidum during a live briefing aired on state-run PTV said 69 tremors have been recorded in the last 24 hours. Citing volcanic activity in recent days, authorities on Tuesday began conducting the forced evacuation of residents living near the active volcano. "This current activity is related to what happened in January 2020 due to the weeks and months after the eruption," Solidum said. He added that an explosion would be limited to the volcano island which is still considered a permanent danger zone. This means that entering the island is still prohibited. Those living around Taal Volcano in the mainland, he said, are not currently facing a threat. "The likelihood of a phreatic eruption, or explosion, increases like what happened during the initial part of the January 12, 2020 activity of Taal Volcano," Solidum said partially in Filipino. He added that an explosion would be sudden, necessitating the evacuation of those living on the volcanic island. Taal erupted last Jan. 13, 2020, unleashing a kilometers-high ash column and lava fountain. The restive activity led to the evacuation of thousands living on the volcano island and high-risk areas and the destruction of houses and establishments in Batangas.
Authentic source : Information from trusted source (newspapers, emails, websites).

Situation update

An upwelling of hot volcanic gases at Taal Lake’s surface was observed by the Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Phivolcs) on Monday, May 3. Phivolcs said the upwelling was accompanied by 500-meter tall steam-laden plumes that were emitted from active fumaroles or vents. In its volcano bulletin issued on Tuesday, May 4, Phivolcs also reported the detection of nine low-frequency volcanic earthquakes and a low-level background tremor that has persisted since April 8. Taal Volcano’s sulfur dioxide emission averaged 1,587 tonnes per day on Monday, it added. Meanwhile, temperature highs of 71.8 degrees Celsius and pH of 1.59 were last measured from the main crater lake on March 4 and Feb. 12, 2021, respectively. Phivolcs added that ground deformation parameters continued to indicate a “very slow and steady inflation and expansion of the Taal region since after the January 2020 eruption.” “These parameters indicate persistent magmatic activity at shallow depths beneath the edifice,” it said. Phivolcs maintained the alert level over Taal Volcano at Alert Level 2 due to continuous “increased unrest.” The restive volcano in Batangas has been under Alert Level 2 since March 9, 2021. “Sudden steam-driven or phreatic explosions, volcanic earthquakes, minor ashfall, and lethal accumulations or expulsions of volcanic gas can occur and threaten areas within and around TVI (Taal Volcano Island),” Phivolcs pointed out. It warned the public from entering the volcano island, which is a permanent danger zone, especially the vicinities of the main crater and Daang Kastila fissure. Occupancy and boating on Taal Lake should also be strictly prohibited, Phivolcs added. Local government units were advised to continuously assess and strengthen the preparedness of previously evacuated barangays around Taal Lake in case of renewed unrest. Civil aviation authorities were also asked to advise pilots to avoid flying close to the volcano as airborne ash and ballistic fragments from explosions and wind-remobilized ash may pose hazards to aircraft.
The Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Phivolcs) has recorded 19 volcanic earthquakes in Taal in Batangas in the past 24 hours. In a volcano bulletin issued on Saturday, May 1, Phivolcs said of the 19 volcanic earthquakes recorded, 17 low frequency volcanic earthquakes were recorded. It continued to observe low-level background tremor that has persisted since 9:05 a.m. of April 8, 2021. State seismologists also observed a weak emission of steam-laden plumes from fumaroles or gas vents that rose 10 meters at Taal’s Main Crater. Tall Volcano’s sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission averaged 1,918 tonnes per day on April 30, while temperature highs of 71.8°C and pH of 1.59 were last measured from the Main Crater Lake March 4 and Feb. 12, 2021, respectively. “Ground deformation parameters from electronic tilt, continuous GPS (global positioning system) and InSAR (interferometric synthetic aperture radar) monitoring continue to record a very slow and steady inflation and expansion of the Taal region that began after the January 2020 eruption,” Phivolcs said. “These parameters indicate persistent magmatic activity at shallow depths beneath the edifice,” it added. Phivolcs maintained Alert Level 2 at Taal Volcano. The restive volcano has been under Alert Level 2 since March 9, 2021. “Sudden steam-driven or phreatic explosions, volcanic earthquakes, minor ashfall, and lethal accumulations or expulsions of volcanic gas can occur and threaten areas within and around TVI (Taal Volcano Island),” Philvolcs said. It warned the public from entering the volcano island, Taal’s permanent danger zone, especially the vicinities of the main crater and Daang Kastila fissure. It said occupancy and boating on Taal Lake should also be strictly prohibited. “Local government units are advised to continuously assess and strengthen the preparedness of previously evacuated barangays around Taal Lake in case of renewed unrest,” it said. “Civil aviation authorities must advise pilots to avoid flying close to the volcano as airborne ash and ballistic fragments from sudden explosions and wind-remobilized ash may pose hazards to aircraft,” it added.
The number of earthquakes being recorded in Taal Volcano has decreased to just 29 in the last 24 hours, the Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Phivolcs) said. Of the 29 volcanic quakes, 23 were tremors that lasted one to 12 minutes, and six were low frequency volcanic earthquakes and low-level background tremors that started at 9:05 a.m. on April 8. Phivolcs also observed “very weak” emission of ten-meter steam-laden plumes from the volcano’s vents. As of April 24, sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission averaged 1,051 tons per day. Phivolcs also said ground deformation parameters recorded a “very slow and steady inflation and expansion of the Taal region that began after the January 2020 eruption.” “These parameters indicate persistent magmatic activity at shallow depths beneath the edifice,” Phivolcs said in its latest volcano bulletin. Alert Level 2 is maintained over Taal, meaning sudden steam-driven or phreatic explosions, volcanic earthquakes, minor ashfall, and lethal accumulations or expulsions of volcanic gas are possible. Phivolcs strongly recommends that entry must be strictly prohibited on Taal Volcano Island, Taal’s permanent danger zone, especially the vicinity of the main crater, the Daang Kastila fissure, and occupancy and boating on Taal Lake. Last March 25, Phivolcs warned about the increased possibility of a magmatic eruption after it observed a heightened level of seismic activity at Taal Volcano, registering 2,015 volcanic tremors, 734 low-frequency volcanic earthquakes and 18 hybrid earthquake events. This went further down last April 18 with just 51 quakes in the last 24 hours, indicating continued unrest in the volcano. Of the 51 volcanic earthquakes, 43 were volcanic tremors that lasted one to 17 minutes and eight were low frequency volcanic earthquakes and low-level background tremors that started at 9:05 a.m. on April 8.
A total of 40 earthquakes, consisting of 11 episodes of volcanic tremor and 29 low-frequency quakes, were recorded in Taal Volcano in the past 24 hours. In its volcano bulletin issued on Sunday, April 4, the Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Phivolcs) said the 11 episodes of volcanic tremor have durations of one to 16 minutes. Phivolcs also observed weak emission of steam-laden plumes that rose 20 meters. Taal Volcano’s sulfur dioxide emission averaged 1,216 tonnes per day on Saturday, April 3 from 1,854 tonnes per day on Friday, April 2. Meanwhile, temperature highs of 71.8 degrees Celsius and pH of 1.59 were last measured from the main crater lake on March 4 and Feb. 12, 2021, respectively. Phivolcs added that ground deformation parameters continued to indicate a “very slow and steady inflation and expansion of the Taal region after the January 2020 eruption.” “These parameters may indicate increased magmatic activity at shallow depths beneath the edifice,” it said. Phivolcs pointed out that Taal Volcano will remain under Alert Level 2 “but that unrest has been elevating and is under constant evaluation.” Its alert level has been raised from 1 to 2 on March 9, 2021. “Sudden steam-driven or phreatic explosions, volcanic earthquakes, minor ashfall, and lethal accumulations or expulsions of volcanic gas can occur and threaten areas within and around TVI (Taal Volcano Island),” it pointed out. It warned the public from entering the volcano island, which is a permanent danger zone, especially the vicinities of the main crater and Daang Kastila fissure. Occupancy and boating on Taal Lake should be also strictly prohibited, Phivolcs added. Local government units were advised to continuously assess and strengthen the preparedness of previously evacuated barangays around Taal Lake in case of renewed unrest. Civil aviation authorities were also asked to advise pilots to avoid flying close to the volcano as airborne ash and ballistic fragments from explosions and wind-remobilized ash may pose hazards to aircraft.
A total of 254 volcanic earthquakes were recorded in Taal Volcano in the last 24 hours, the Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Phivolcs) said Thursday. Of the 254 tremors, 220 lasted for a minute to 27 minutes, the government volcanogists added. On Wednesday, they detected volcanic "activity at the main crater consisting of weak emission of steam-laden plumes from fumarolic vents that rose 5 metres. Surfurdioxide emission averaged 509 tonnes/day yesterday, 31 March 2021."
The Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Phivolcs) has detected a total of 212 earthquakes in Taal Volcano in the past 24 hours – from 8 a.m., March 30 to 8 a.m., March 31. Of this number, 168 were episodes of volcanic tremor having durations of one to 20 minutes, and 44 were low frequency volcanic earthquakes, based on Phivolcs’ volcano bulletin issued on Wednesday, March 31. Phivolcs said the activity at Taal Volcano’s main crater consisted of weak emission of steam-laden plumes rising five meters. Sulfur dioxide emission from Taal Volcano averaged 1,229 tonnes per day last March 30, slightly up from 1,073 tonnes per day on March 29. Meanwhile, temperature highs of 71.8 degrees Celsius and pH of 1.59 were last measured from the main crater lake on March 4 and Feb. 12, 2021, respectively. Phivolcs added that ground deformation parameters continued to indicate a “very slow and steady inflation and expansion of the Taal region after the January 2020 eruption.” “These parameters may indicate increased magmatic activity at shallow depths beneath the edifice,” it said. Phivolcs pointed out that Taal Volcano will remain under Alert Level 2 “but that unrest has been elevating and is under constant evaluation.” Its alert level has been raised from 1 to 2 on March 9, 2021. “Sudden steam-driven or phreatic explosions, volcanic earthquakes, minor ashfall, and lethal accumulations or expulsions of volcanic gas can occur and threaten areas within and around TVI (Taal Volcano Island),” it pointed out. It warned the public from entering the volcano island, which is a permanent danger zone, especially the vicinities of the main crater and Daang Kastila fissure. Occupancy and boating on Taal Lake should also be strictly prohibited, Phivolcs added. Local government units were advised to continuously assess and strengthen the preparedness of previously evacuated barangays around Taal Lake in case of renewed unrest. Civil aviation authorities were also asked to advise pilots to avoid flying close to the volcano as airborne ash and ballistic fragments from sudden explosions and wind-remobilized ash may pose hazards to aircraft.
At least 259 volcanic earthquakes and 236 episodes of volcanic tremors were recorded in Taal Volcano in the past 24 hours, PHIVOLCS said in its bulletin on Wednesday. These numbers are higher compared to the 102 volcanic earthquakes and 87 episodes of volcanic tremors reported on Tuesday. Also, the duration of the volcanic activities was recorded from one to 22 minutes, which are longer compared to the duration of one to eight minutes that were reported on the previous day.
Taal Volcano tallied around 175 volcanic earthquakes over 24 hours, the state seismology bureau said Saturday. In an advisory issued at 8 a.m., Phivolcs said the activity around the main crater “consisted of moderate emission of steam-laden plumes from fumarolic vents that rose 80 to 100 meters high.” On top of the 125 volcanic earthquakes, it also recorded 131 volcanic tremors around the Batangas volcano, lasting between 1 and 15 minutes. Phivolcs had said it recorded 252 volcanic earthquakes within 24 hours in Taal in a March 15 advisory. With the earthquakes and tremors felt, Taal stands at Alert Level 2, which signifies increased unrest. Under the said alert level, sudden steam-driven or phreatic explosions, volcanic earthquakes, minor ashfall, and expulsions, and lethal accumulations of volcanic gas may occur and threaten areas within the Taal Volcano island. Phivolcs in the bulletin recommended anew that entries into some areas such as the Taal Volcano Island, Taal's Permanent Danger Zone, and the vicinities of the main crater and Daang Kastila fissure "must remain strictly prohibited." Local government officials were also advised to "continuously assess and strengthen the preparedness" of barangays previously evacuated around Taal lake in case of "renewed unrest." Pilots were also advised to avoid flying near the volcano to avoid potential hazards from sudden explosions and wind-remobilized ash. Phivolcs also said it was "closely monitoring" volcanic activity around Taal, with significant developments to be "immediately" communicated. In February, authorities evacuated residents of the island where the Taal volcano is located. Taal's eruption in January last year displaced some 350,000 people and brought ash fall around Batangas and surrounding areas, including Metro Manila.
Based on Phivolcs’ volcano bulletin, the earthquakes include 34 episodes of volcanic tremors, which lasted between one minute and eight minutes, and one hybrid event. Phivolcs also observed “weak” emission of steam-laden plumes rising 5 meters. Moreover, it measured a significant sulfur dioxide emission that averaged 1,216 tonnes/day last March 15, while temperature highs of 71.8 degrees Celsius and pH of 1.59 were measured from the main crater last March 4 and Feb. 11, respectively. Ground deformation parameters also indicated a “very slow and steady inflation and expansion of the Taal region since after the January 2020 eruption.” “These parameters may indicate increased magmatic activity at shallow depths beneath the edifice,” Phivolcs said. Considering these observations, Phivolcs said Taal Volcano remains under alert level 2 due to “increased unrest.” Its alert level was raised from 1 to 2 on March 9, 2021. The possibility of sudden steam-driven or phreatic explosions, volcanic earthquakes, minor ashfall, and lethal accumulations or expulsions of volcanic gas can occur and threaten areas within the Taal Volcano island, it warned. Phivolcs asked for the public to prevent from entering the volcano island, which is a permanent danger zone, especially the vicinities of the main crater and Daang Kastila fissure. Local government units were advised to continuously assess and strengthen the preparedness of previously evacuated barangays around Taal Lake in case of renewed unrest. Civil aviation authorities were also asked to advise pilots to avoid flying close to the volcano as airborne ash and ballistic fragments from sudden explosions and wind-remobilized ash may pose hazards to aircraft.
Philippine authorities on Tuesday raised the alert level for Taal volcano to 2, saying it is showing "increasing unrest". "This means that there is (a) probable magmatic activity that may or may not lead to an eruption," Renato Solidum, director of the Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology, said in a local radio interview. The institute said it raised the alert level from 1, or low-level unrest, to 2, or increasing unrest, after detecting 28 "volcanic tremor episodes, four low-frequency volcanic earthquakes, and one hybrid earthquake at shallow depths of less than 1.5 km beneath the volcano in the past 24 hours", reports Xinhua news agency. "Volcanic tremors have increased seismic energy compared to previously recorded episodes and ranged between three to 17 minutes in duration," the institute said in a statement, adding the number of volcanic tremor events has increased to 866 since the onset of increased activity on February 13. The institute added that 141 low-frequency volcanic earthquakes have occurred within one-km depth beneath the volcano and immediate vicinities. "Overall, seismic activity in the past month indicates increased magmatic and hydrothermal activity at shallow depths beneath Taal volcano island," the institute said. The institute urged people to stay away from the island, reminding the villagers that the island is a permanent danger zone. "Entry into the island, especially the vicinities of the main crater and the (tourist trail), must remain strictly prohibited," the institute said. Taal volcano, 66 km south of Manila, last erupted in January 2020. An active earthquake zone, the Philippines has frequent seismic activity due to its location along the Pacific "Ring of Fire". At least 24 active volcanoes dot the Philippine archipelago.
The Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS) on Saturday reported that 55 volcanic earthquakes were recorded in the past 24 hours, Of this number, 49 volcanic tremors lasted for one to 2.5 minutes. PHIVOLCS also said the volcano emitted a white plume on Friday afternoon at 2:11 p.m. that reached 400 to 500 meters tall which resulted from a burst of steam-rich gas from the main crater. The plume emission lasted for 2.5 minutes. The main crater also emitted other steam-laden plumes that reached 50 meters high. On Friday, the sulfur dioxide level at the volcano reached 582 tonnes/day on the average before the 500-meter plume was emitted. The last time the temperature in the main crater lake was taken was on March 4, and it registered 71.8 degrees Celsius. Its pH level was recorded at 1.59 on Feb. 12. The volcano’s landscape continues to change since the January 2020 eruption as PHIVOLCS observed: “ground deformation parameters from electronic tilt, continuous GPS and inSAR data analysis indicated a very slow and steady inflation and expansion of the Taal region.” “These parameters may indicate increased magmatic activity at shallow depths beneath the edifice,” PHIVOLCS said. Taal Volcano remains under Alert Level 2 (increased unrest), PHIVOLCS said. It advised the public that “at Alert Level 2, sudden steam-driven or phreatic explosions, volcanic earthquakes, minor ashfall, and lethal accumulations or expulsions of volcanic gas can occur and threaten areas within the Taal Volcano Island.” PHIVOLCS also reminded the public that Taal Volcano Island is a permanent danger zone and should be off-limits. It also advised local government units to ensure that barangays around Taal Lake that were evacuated previously be adequately prepared should there be renewed unrest. PHIVOLCS also advised pilots to avoid flying close to Taal Volcano as ash and ballistic fragments from sudden explosions may be hazardous to aircraft.
Alert Level 2 is still up over Taal Volcano as the Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Phivolcs) reported Friday morning that 51 volcanic earthquakes were recorded in the area in the last 24 hours. According to Phivolcs’ 8 a.m. bulletin, 23 of the recorded earthquakes were “episodes of volcanic tremor” lasting for two to six minutes. One hybrid earthquake was also recorded. “Activity at the main crater consisted of weak emission of steam-laden plumes from fumarolic vents that rose five meters high,” Phivolcs said. Phivolcs likewise said that temperature highs of 71.8 degrees Celcius and pH (a measure of how acidic or basic water is) of 1.59 were last measured from the Main Crater Lake on March 4 and February 12, 2021, respectively. Further, Phivolcs said data analysis indicated “a very slow and steady inflation and expansion of the Taal region since after the January 2020 eruption.” “These parameters may indicate increased magmatic activity at shallow depths beneath the edifice,” Phivolcs added. Under alert level 2, sudden steam-driven or phreatic explosions, volcanic earthquakes, minor ashfall, and lethal accumulations or expulsions of volcanic gas can occur and threaten areas within the Taal Volcano Island. “DOST-PHIVOLCS strongly recommends that entry into TVI (Taal Volcano Island), Taal’s Permanent Danger Zone or PDZ, especially the vicinities of the Main Crater and the Daang Kastila fissure, must remain strictly prohibited,” Phivolcs stressed. State volcanologists raised the status of Taal Volcano to alert level 2 more than a year after its last phreatic eruption in January 2020.
The Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Phivolcs) on Tuesday raised the alert level status of Taal Volcano from level 1 (low level of unrest) to level 2 (increasing unrest). In a webinar, Phivolcs director Renato Solidum, Jr. said alert level 2 means eruption may or may not happen. Under this status, evacuation is not recommended but the public is advised against going to the Taal Volcano Island (TVI), a permanent danger zone. The vicinities of the main crater and Daang Kastila fissure must also remain strictly prohibited. In its latest volcano bulletin, Phivolcs said there were 28 volcanic tremor episodes, four low-frequency volcanic earthquakes, and one hybrid earthquake at shallow depths of less than 1.5 km. beneath the TVI in the past 24 hours. Volcanic tremors had three to 17 minutes in duration. “Overall, seismic activity in the past month indicates increased magmatic and hydrothermal activity at shallow depths beneath TVI,” the Phivolcs said. Increasing acidity was also observed, caused by sustained volcanic gas input into the shallow hydrothermal system that feeds into the lake, signifying degassing of magma intruded at depth during the January 2020 eruption. Phivolcs has urged local governments to continuously assess previously evacuated barangays around Taal Lake for damages and road access and to strengthen preparedness, contingency, and communication measures in case of renewed unrest. Residents of these barangays are advised to be always prepared, to keep calm, and listen to information only from trusted or verified sources, Phivolcs said.
About 600 families from two towns have been evacuated as the threat of a phreatic eruption loomed on Taal Volcano, the Batangas Provincial Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Office said Wednesday. A phreatic eruption is an explosion driven by the heat from magma interacting with water, which can be from groundwater, hydrothermal systems, surface runoff, a lake, or the sea and it pulverizes surrounding rocks and can produce ash, but does not include new magma. Interviewed on GMA News TV’s "Balitanghali", heard nationwide, PDRRMO head Joselito Castro said the first batch of evacuees voluntarily left the island on Monday night. According to Castro, around 600 families from Talisay and Agoncillo towns had already moved to the housing projects provided by the national government that is located in safe areas in Calabarzon. He said concerned authorities were now checking how some of the concerned residents were not able to avail of the housing program. Previously, nearly 50 families, or some 300 people, including children and women, were moved, the local disaster officials said. Meanwhile, the newly installed Presidential Adviser for Southern Tagalog Casimiro Ynares Jr. appealed to residents at the foot of Taal Volcano to follow or voluntarily evacuate from their homes, as state seismologists continued to record increased activity in the area. "Let us follow the pre-emptive evacuation. Life is more important than properties. The things we own can be reproduced, but we only get to live once,” Ynares said. Ynares also said in a statement that every local government unit along the areas was ready and poised to provide assistance to the affected residents. "Let us put our trust in our LGU's. President Rodrigo Duterte is fully aware of the situation and has already tasked various agencies to monitor and assist," Ynares added. Some 60 people were already evacuated by the Philippine Coast Guard, Bureau of Fire Protection, Philippine National Police at the Municipal Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Office. They were brought to the evacuation center in Talisay, Batangas. Taal Volcano remained under Alert Level 1 on Wednesday, Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology director Renato Solidum said. Sixty-nine tremors were recorded in the past 24 hours, and PHIVOLCS observed the increase in temperature and acidity in the main crater lake. Meanwhile, amid the return of several residents to their home within Taal Volcano’s permanent danger zone in Batangas, the Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology on Wednesday still strongly recommended that entry into Taal Volcano island, especially the vicinity of the main crater and Daang Kastila fissure, “must remain strictly prohibited.” The island is Taal’s permanent danger zone. Alert level 1 (abnormal) is maintained over Taal Volcano. Phivolcs reminded the public that at alert level 1, sudden steam-driven or phreatic explosions, volcanic earthquakes, minor ashfall, and lethal accumulations or expulsions of volcanic gas could occur and threaten areas within the Taal Volcano island. As of Wednesday morning, Taal Volcano Network recorded 69 tremor episodes with durations of one to five minutes within the past 24-hour period. Activity in the main crater consisted of weak emission of white steam-laden plumes from fumaroles that rose 20 meters high. Ground deformation parameters from continuous electronic tilt on the Taal Volcano island recorded a slight deflation around the main crater since October 2020, “but overall, very slow and steady inflation of the Taal region has been recorded by continuous GPS data after the eruption,” Phivolcs said. Several displaced island residents went back to their homes within the permanent danger zone to look after their livelihood, Vice Governor Mark Leviste told Unang Balita over GMA News 7.

Casualties

Number of dead: 0 person(s)
Number of injured: 0 person(s)
Number of Affected: 0 person(s)
Number of Rescued/evacuated: 2400 person(s)
Number of Missing: 0 person(s)
Number of Infected: 0 person(s)

Event Specific Details


[Geological Event - volcano activity]

Overview map



Risk Analisys

Nearest marine ports Batangas City (29.54 km), Nasugbu (41.84 km)
Nearest airports There is no known marine port nearby.
Nearest nuclear power plant There is no known nuclear power plant nearby.

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